In many of the stories, Holmes dives into an apparent mess to find a relevant item. Irene Adler Main article: Only one other adventure, " The Adventure of the Lion's Mane ", takes place during the detective's retirement. Is an expert singlestick player, boxer and swordsman. All my years of humble but single-minded service culminated in that moment of revelation. Although Holmes also dabbles in morphine , he expresses strong disapproval when he visits an opium den ; both drugs were legal in 19th-century England. Because of the small scale of much of his evidence, the detective often uses a magnifying glass at the scene and an optical microscope at his Baker Street lodgings. This methodology allows Holmes to learn a stranger's occupation and other details. Plays the violin well.
Holmes says that he first developed his methods of deduction as an undergraduate; his earliest cases, which he pursued as an amateur, came from fellow university students. The style and state of wear of a person's clothes and personal items are also commonly relied on; in the stories Holmes is seen applying his method to walking sticks,  pipes,  hats,  and other objects. Although in his methods of thought he was the neatest and most methodical of mankind Holmes's brother Mycroft , seven years his senior, is a government official. Littlejohn, who was also Police Surgeon and Medical Officer of Health in Edinburgh, provided Conan Doyle with a link between medical investigation and the detection of crime. He uses analytical chemistry for blood residue analysis and toxicology to detect poisons; Holmes's home chemistry laboratory is mentioned in "The Adventure of the Naval Treaty". In , Conan Doyle wrote "The Adventure of the Empty House", set in ; Holmes reappears, explaining to a stunned Watson that he had faked his death to fool his enemies. In The Sign of the Four, he introduces himself to McMurdo, a prize fighter , as "the amateur who fought three rounds with you at Alison's rooms on the night of your benefit four years back. You might have aimed high if you had joined the fancy. Holmes demonstrates a knowledge of psychology in "A Scandal in Bohemia", luring Irene Adler into betraying where she hid a photograph based on the premise that an unmarried woman will save her most valued possession from a fire. When Watson asks how Holmes knows this, the detective answers: Other weapons As a gentleman, Holmes often carries a stick or cane. I daresay that if I had put pounds down in front of him, that man would not have given me such complete information as was drawn from him by the idea that he was doing me on a wager". To Sherlock Holmes she is always the woman. Holmes derives pleasure from baffling police inspectors with his deductions and has supreme confidence—bordering on arrogance—in his intellectual abilities. The detective believes that the mind has a finite capacity for information storage, and learning useless things reduces one's ability to learn useful things. Wishing to devote more time to his historical novels, Conan Doyle killed off Holmes in a final battle with the criminal mastermind Professor James Moriarty in "The Final Problem" published , but set in When Watson is injured by a bullet, although the wound turns out to be "quite superficial", Watson is moved by Holmes's reaction: As the story opens, the Prince is engaged to another. Her memory is kept alive by the photograph of Adler that Holmes received for his part in the case, and he refers to her from time to time in subsequent stories. Well up in belladonna , opium and poisons generally. I have seldom heard him mention her under any other name. For this reason, Adler is the frequent subject of pastiche writing. Only one other adventure, " The Adventure of the Lion's Mane ", takes place during the detective's retirement. Arthur Conan Doyle, A Study in Scarlet Subsequent stories reveal that Watson's early assessment was incomplete in places and inaccurate in others, due to the passage of time if nothing else. Knowledge and skills Shortly after meeting Holmes in the first story, A Study in Scarlet generally assumed to be , though the exact date is not given , Watson assesses the detective's abilities: In " The Problem of Thor Bridge ", the detective says, "My professional charges are upon a fixed scale.
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